# SQL And Vector Joint Queries

MyScale combines the power of SQL and vectors for your AI data workloads. You can execute complex traditional SQL and vector queries on their unstructured (vectorized) and structured data using SQL's comprehensive library of intuitive syntax, enabling quick and efficient data analysis operations.

# SQL + Vector: Why is it Important?

The importance of traditional SQL and vector joint queries lies in their ability to combine structured data and vector embeddings (data) to address complex queries and analyze high-dimensional data in a unified and efficient manner. This approach offers several benefits and capabilities:

  • Work with More Data Types & Functions: MyScale can store and query high-dimensional vector data and any metadata you can think of. This seamless integration allows users to design and execute more complex queries and data analyses. Using AI models and business data benefits decision-making by providing a more comprehensive perspective of the data.

  • Hybrid Search: Combining semantic search with traditional keyword matching in hybrid search overcomes the challenge of insufficient semantic coverage in vectorized documents. It is particularly beneficial for pinpointing rare words or when a user is intent on searching for specific terms. Moreover, the foundation for hybrid search is established through SQL and vector joint queries.

  • Unified Query Language: SQL is a widely-used database query language used by many developers and data analysts. Users can seamlessly integrate the syntax they already know by joining SQL and vector search in a single query, eliminating the need to learn new query languages.

  • Efficient Data Retrieval: Vectorized (unstructured) and structured data often require specialized vector indexes and search algorithms for efficient and effective retrieval. By joining SQL and vector search in a single query, The MyScale engine can perform vector-related searches and optimize query execution plans, retrieving data faster and more efficiently.

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    For an example of how to retrieve data effectively, navigate to Advanced Apps: Query Design.

  • Streamlining Data Workflows: MyScale provides a unified data solution, from native SQL to vector search queries. SQL users can expand their queries with vector searches, while vector search users can store their metadata in well-structured tables.

In summary, traditional SQL, together with vector queries, can handle and analyze high-dimensional vector data, extending database application domains and providing enhanced data analysis capabilities. This is significant for numerous disciplines, including machine learning, data science, image processing, and more.

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See Sample Apps and Advanced Apps for a comprehensive understanding of the robust nature of traditional SQL queries and vector search.

# Using SQL + Vector: A Demo Based on ChatData

ChatData, an LLM chat app, offers unrivaled efficiency and accuracy when interacting with your documents. The powerful metadata filters and advanced vector search capabilities simplify answering questions about domain data.

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Using ChatData, you can seamlessly interact with millions of documents, including academic papers, finding what you need quickly and easily. Whether you're a researcher, student, or knowledge enthusiast, exploring academic papers and research documents has never been easier than with ChatData. Unlock the true potential of information retrieval with ChatData and discover a world of knowledge at your fingertips.

The following section describes how to create a demo in MyScale based on the query retrieval implementation of ChatData and demonstrates how to execute SQL and vector joint queries.

# Creating the Database Tables

This sample application uses a document library containing academic paper data (in vectors) stored and retrieved when queried. Execute the following SQL statements to create relational tables for the document library in MyScale's SQL Workspace.

# The chatPDF Table

This table stores paragraph text data extracted from PDFs in the document library in the following fields:

  1. id: The paragrah ID
  2. pdf (SHA256): The corresponding PDF ID
  3. content: The paragraph content
  4. section: The section that the paragraph belongs to
  5. page: The page number
  6. vector: The paragraph's feature vector
CREATE TABLE default.chatPDF (
    `id` String,
    `pdf` String,
    `content` String,
    `section` String,
    `page` Int32,
    `vector` Array(Float32),
    VECTOR INDEX vec_idx vector TYPE MSTG('metric_type=Cosine'),
    CONSTRAINT vec_len CHECK length(vector) = 512)
ENGINE = ReplacingMergeTree ORDER BY id SETTINGS index_granularity = 8192;

# The chatPDF_meta Table

This table stores metadata information linked to the document library's PDF files in the following fields:

  1. pdf (SHA256): The PDF ID
  2. title: The PDF title
  3. authors: The PDF author(s)
  4. abstract: The PDF abstract
  5. pub_date: Publication date
  6. doi: The document's DOI (Document Object Identifier) - https://doi.org (opens new window)
  7. publisher: The document's publisher
  8. article_type: The article type/category - {'arXiv', 'Finance'}
  9. vector: The paragraph abstract's feature vector
CREATE TABLE default.chatPDF_meta (
    `pdf` String,
    `title` String,
    `authors` Array(String),
    `abstract` String,
    `pub_date` Nullable(Date32),
    `doi` String,
    `publisher` String,
    `article_type` String,
    `vector` Array(Float32),
    VECTOR INDEX vec_idx vector TYPE MSTG('metric_type=Cosine'),
    CONSTRAINT vec_len CHECK length(vector) = 512)
ENGINE = ReplacingMergeTree ORDER BY pdf SETTINGS index_granularity = 8192;

# The chatPDF_ref Table

This table stores information about the references cited in the document library's PDF files in the following fields:

  1. pdf (SHA256): Cited PDF ID
  2. title: The referenced article's title
  3. authors: The referenced article's author(s)
  4. journal: The referenced article's abstract
  5. year: The referenced article's publication year
CREATE TABLE default.chatPDF_ref (
    `title` String,
    `pdf` String,
    `journal` String,
    `authors` Array(String),
    `year` Nullable(Date32))
ENGINE = ReplacingMergeTree ORDER BY title SETTINGS index_granularity = 8192;

# The chatPDF_user Table

This table stores the document library's user access permissions for all PDF documents in the following fields:

  1. id: ACL (Access Control List) ID
  2. user: ACL user
  3. pdf: ACL PDF document codes that the user can access
CREATE TABLE default.chatPDF_user (
    `id` String, 
    `user` String, 
    `pdf` String) 
ENGINE = ReplacingMergeTree ORDER BY id SETTINGS index_granularity = 8192;

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If a user possesses access privileges to multiple PDF documents, there will be multiple rows of records in chatPDF_user table associated with the said user.

# Perform SQL and Vector Joint Queries

Using these database tables, we will illustrate how to efficiently execute SQL and vector joint queries that satisfy the retrieval requirements.

# Use Case 1: Retrieving Relevant Papers from a Collection of PDF Files

This scenario aims to retrieve the PDFs and their titles from the chatPDF table that meet the following conditions:

  • The user is either "default" or "test"
  • The authors includes names like "Cedar"
  • The order is determined based on distance to the query vector, which represents semantic similarities

To retrieve the data that meets these conditions, execute the following SQL statement:

SELECT content, section, page, title, pdf
FROM chatPDF
JOIN chatPDF_meta ON chatPDF.pdf = chatPDF_meta.pdf
WHERE pdf IN (
    SELECT pdf FROM chatPDF_user
    JOIN chatPDF_meta ON chatPDF_user.pdf = chatPDF_meta.pdf
    WHERE user IN ('default', 'test') AND match(arrayStringConcat(authors, ';'), '(?i)(;Ceder\s|\sCeder;)')
)
GROUP BY content, section, page, d, title, pdf
ORDER BY distance(chatPDF.vector, 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0.018050478771328926,0.032970454543828964,0.05030900239944458,-0.041838958859443665,0.024229686707258224,0.057461854070425034,-0.02769048698246479,-0.08287783712148666,-0.013447163626551628,-0.02488953061401844,-0.0425758957862854,-0.012551549822092056,-0.04819975793361664,0.008644652552902699,0.022290777415037155,-0.011933647096157074,0.009241824969649315,0.062280043959617615,0.04031931608915329,0.001838891999796033,0.014451868832111359,0.05482003092765808,-0.008294470608234406,-0.023700769990682602,0.03858468681573868,-0.023084208369255066,0.034360695630311966,0.028466977179050446,0.007224178873002529,0.029080070555210114,-0.03933968394994736,0.03940221667289734,0.03889504820108414,0.04564525932073593,0.0435170978307724,-0.04239299148321152,-0.01216538343578577,-0.004489195998758078]) AS d
LIMIT 5;

# Use Case 2: Search for Sections Relevant to the Provided Embedding Vector

As seen below, the SQL statement in this scenario uses the embedding vector to search for sections that meet the following conditions:

  • These sections must relate to the query embedding vector
  • The user is either "default" or "test"
  • Query results are reordered according to the disassembled documents' keywords, combining the power of vector and keywords for more accurate retrieval.
SELECT content, section, page, temp_t.title AS title, temp_t.pdf AS pdf 
FROM (
    SELECT content, section, page, title, pdf
    FROM chatPDF 
    JOIN chatPDF_meta ON chatPDF_meta.pdf = chatPDF.pdf 
    WHERE pdf IN (
        SELECT pdf FROM chatPDF_user
        JOIN chatPDF_meta ON chatPDF_user.pdf = chatPDF_meta.pdf
        WHERE user IN ('test', 'default')
        )
    GROUP BY content, section, page, d, title, pdf
    ORDER BY distance(chatPDF.vector, 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AS d
    LIMIT 20
) temp_t
JOIN chatPDF_meta ON temp_t.pdf = chatPDF_meta.pdf
ORDER BY log(1 + countMatches(arrayStringConcat([abstract, content, title], ' '), '(?i)(solid-state|electrolyte)')+1) AS d DESC
LIMIT 5;

# Notes

The following points apply when using MyScale for SQL and vector joint queries:

  1. You can use the distance()...ORDER BY...LIMIT query pattern in subqueries that utilize vector indexes. Whenever MyScale detects this pattern and a table involved in the subquery has vector columns with vector indexes, it will use the vector indexes to accelerate the query. In ClickHouse, the ORDER BY clause can appear not only in the outermost query.

  2. MyScale is a columnar database, so the query results should ideally only include essential columns. Non-essential columns should not appear in the SELECT clause, and SELECT * should be avoided to improve query speed.

Last Updated: Wed Jun 12 2024 02:25:51 GMT+0000